HRV Monitoring in a Team Setting: The Research

Though my original interest in HRV monitoring was for personal usage with my powerlifting training (and still is), I have become much more interested in its application with my athletes. In July, I wrote a post discussing some of the research and my thoughts on HRV in a team setting. I’ve come across some more great research that pertains to HRV monitoring in team settings and would like to share some thoughts on the topic.

Below is a  list of questions I’d like to address:

  • How effective is HRV monitoring in a team setting really?
  • What difference is there, if any, when monitoring HRV in elite vs. sub-elite athletes?
  • How practical is HRV monitoring in a team setting?
  • Can we create favorable autonomic profiles in athletes prior to intensive training blocks to improve global (all players) responsiveness to training? (to avoid injury, overtraining, etc)
  • How can we apply research that used frequency domain measures (HF, LF, HF/LF) with mobile apps/devices like ithlete and Bioforce that use RMSSD, a time domain measure of parasympathetic tone?

Keep in mind that I do not train elite athletes and therefore much of what I discuss is based on my interpretations of the research, discussions I’ve had with others and some theory. I certainly am not capable of providing answers to any of the above question.

First, I’d like to present brief summaries of the research I’ve read on the topic. I’ve only included studies that used HRV to monitor fatigue, training load, etc. At this time I’m not including studies using HRV during exercise, or post-exercise.

In some cases I could not get access to the full-text which you will see noted in the respective tables. Please enlighten me of any research on this topic I may have not included. I apologize for the poor presentation of the table’s below. I originally had all of this in a more reader friendly format in Word but for some reason it does not transfer over to wordpress very well.

Author Ke-Tien (2012)
Sport Male, National Level Rugby (n=24)
Aim To verify biological and psychological stress markers during strenuous cardiovascular endurance training periodization, using Profile of Mood States questionnaires, HRV & blood urine nitrogen as the criteria measurements.
Main Findings HRV correlated to profile of mood states survey and blood-urnine nitrogen in elite male national rugby players (n=24).
HRV Analysis Non-daily, Frequency Domain
Author Edmonds et al. (2012)
Sport Male, Elite Youth Rugby (n=9)
Aim To investigate the influence of weekly training & a competitive game on HRV in elite youth rugby league players, & to identify the importance of HRV as a monitoring tool for Rugby League player preparation.
Main Findings Prior to a match, elite youth, players exhibited a significant reduction in HRV that was sustained for at least 24 hours post-game. This withdrawal of parasympathetic &/or increased sympathetic control of HR possibly may result from pre-match anxiety as well as the physical demands of the game. Strong relationships between HRV and training load at Pre-2 indicate that early monitoring may assist in identifying training workloads for the upcoming week.
HRV Analysis Daily, Time & Frequency Domain
Author Oliveira et al. (2012a)  – Abstract Only
Sport Male, Elite Futsal (n=11)
Aim The aim of this study was to determine the changes in physical performance and resting heart rate variability (HRV) in professional futsal players during the pre-season and in-season training periods.
Main Findings Players improved their RSA & Yo-Yo IR1 performance with concomitant improvements in HRV. These indices were maintained during the in-season period while RSAbest was improved & RSAdecrement impaired. Frequent monitoring of these performances and HRV indices may assist with identification of individual training adaptations and/or early signs of maladaption.
HRV Analysis Non-daily, Unknown
Author Vantinnen et al. (2007)
Sport Male, Elite Soccer (n=24)
Aim To introduce a method commonly used in Finnish sport to monitor the exercise intensity & changes in recovery state of players in team sports by examining their heart rate (HR/HRV) responses to training & relaxation stimulus.
Main Findings Individual differences do exist in practices & games. This would imply that coaches need to quantify each game or practice exercise intensity & recovery for each individual, in order to organize & optimally prepare an individual training plan for each athlete.
HRV Analysis Various over 3 weeks (daily, nocturnal, 24 hr), Time and Frequency Domain
Author Oliveira et al. (2012b) – Abstract Only
Sport Male, Caliber Unknown, Soccer (n=10
Aim The aim of this study was to analyze whether the heart rate variability (HRV), assessed at the beginning of a soccer preseason, reveals a correlation with the improvement of physical performance over this training period.
Main Findings There were significant improvements in Yo-Yo IR1 performance & in the 30-m sprint time. The qualitative analysis revealed that the differences in Yo-Yo IR1 performance were very likely positive, were almost certainly positive for the sprint, but were inconclusive for the vertical jump. There was a strong correlation between one parasympathetic index and the change in performance. The study showed a strong correlation between parasympathetic indices of HRV with the performance improvement in Yo-Yo IR1 in the athletes during pre-season.
HRV Analysis Non-daily, Unknown
Author Rodas, G. et al. (2011) – Abstract Only
Sport Elite, Field Hockey (n=? entire team)
Aim To determine the changes in HRV during the 2006 World Cup
Main Findings HRV decreases progressively & the values of the parameters related to parasympathetic system activity (RMSSD & HF) reduce, which are indicative of good psychic-physical adaptability to the workload. At the same time, the value of the parameters related to sympathetic system activity (LF and LF/HF) increases, suggesting an increase in fatigue, tiredness and poor adaptability in general. Consequently, the analysis of HRV may be a good marker for monitoring the psychic-physical state, cardiovascular adaptability during exercise & a possible state of physical overload in athletes participating in competitions.
HRV Analysis Day of competitions only – Time and Frequency Domain
Author Martin-Sanchez et al. (2011)
Sport Male Pro Soccer (n=12) & Age/Sex matched Amateur Soccer (n=9)
Aim To determine if an intensive preseason training program modifies the inflammatory status in professional soccer players and if this inflammatory profile may be associated with the physical state.
Main Findings A negative association between cardiac low frequency & the plasma content of alpha-1 antichymotrypsin isotype 4, & a positive association between cardiac low frequency & fibrinogen gamma-chain isotype 3 was found. Our results suggest that the cardiac functional state of soccer players may be correlated with these proteins. Pro soccer players showed a decreased content of circulating proteins associated with inflammation compared with those in recreational soccer players.
HRV Analysis Morning of analysis – Time and Frequency Domain
Author Cipryan et al. (2010)
Sport Male, Hockey Junior Level (n=8), Adult (N=10)
Aim To present inter-individual differences in the reaction of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity to the same training program, and to thereby support the importance of individual training in team sports during the conditioning period.
Main Findings The SA HRV monitoring mostly revealed significant differences in the level of the ANS activity among the players. A number of junior & adult players were characterized by almost permanently high ANS activity whereas other players occurred below the ANS activity level of healthy individuals.  The training efficiency (overreaching and injury reduction) can be positively influenced by creating training groups of players with similar ANS activity.
HRV Analysis Non-daily – Frequency Domain
Author Cipryan et al. (2007)
Sport Male, U-18 National Level Hockey (n=4)
Aim To investigate the influence of regular sport training on the activity of the autonomicnervous system (ANS) and to disclose patterns of interrelations between them.
Main Findings The results demonstrated that the player with the highest average TS (total score)& the highest average PT(total power) also showed the most consistent results & objectively the best performance in sport. On the other hand, the player with the lowest average TS and the lowest average PT also obtained the lowest average mark in the coach’s evaluation of his sports performance. The tendency to progression of the ANS  activity was different for each subject. The self-reports health status survey, which was given before measurements were taken, did not correspond with the results of the SA HRV measurement.
HRV Analysis Non-daily, Frequency Domain
Author Hap et al. (2010)
Sport Male, High Level Volleyball (n=8)
Aim The goal of the work was to verify the possibility of volleyball playersʼ training load optimization during a one week training microcycle based on the longitudinal observation of dynamics of SA HRV complex indices.
Main Findings 2 Players had above average levels ANS activity indicating higher training loads could be tolerated.4 Players had low ANS activity (but not below average) showing evidence of some fatigue and adaptation. Training loads are appropriate.

2 Players had below average ANS activity and their training adaptability was reduced.

HRV Analysis Daily – Frequency Domain
Author Parrado et al. (2010) – Abstract Only
Sport Elite, Field Hockey (n=? entire team)
Aim The aim of the study was to examine the utility of perceived tiredness to predict cardiac autonomic response to overload among feld hockey players during the 2006 World Cup.
Main Findings Results showed a negative correlation between perceived tiredness scores & time domain indexes, & a positive correlation of perceived tiredness scores and the high frequency component ratio (LF/HF ratio) of heart rate variability. Anxiety did not influence the precompetitive cardiac response despite somatic anxiety’s correlation with sympathetic response (LF/HF ratio) & tiredness scores. Perceived tiredness predicted the autonomic cardiac response to competitive overload. Thus, the perceived tiredness assessment would be a good early marker of fatigue & overload states during competition
HRV Analysis Day of analysis, Frequency Domain
Author Mazon et al. (2011)
Sport Male, Volleyball (n=32)
Aim To investigate the effects of selective loads of periodization model (SLPM) on autonomic modulation of HRV and endogenous stress markers before and after a competition period in volleyball players.
Main Findings SLPM did not change the cardiac autonomic modulation of HRV, but promoted beneficial adaptations in athletes, including positive changes in the plasma concentration of the endogenous stress markers. The absence of changes in HRV indicates that there is no direct relationship between cardiac autonomic modulation & endogenous stress markers in the present study.
HRV Analysis Pre & Post Training Cycle, Frequency Domain
Author Di Fronso et al. (2012)  – Abstract On
Sport Male, Amateur Basketball (n=7)
Aim To investigate the relationship between Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and performance in players of a basketball team during playoffs.
Main Findings Findings of this study suggest that vagal activity, expressed by HF index of HRV, can be positively related to the athletes’ performance. In particular, higher values of HF index during the morning of the match were associated with higher levels of athletes’ performance during the game.
HRV Analysis Morning of Competitions – Frequency Domain
Author Dranitsin (2008)
Sport Elite Male (n=12) and Female (n=1) Rowers
Aim The aim of this study was to examine the simultaneous effect on HRV of acclimatization to a hot, humid environment and a transition of five time zones in elite junior rowers.
Main Findings Major physiological adaptation of HRV indices in the standing position during acclimatization to a humid, hot environment, with a transition across five time zones, occurs within the first 5 days in elite athletes before returning to baseline. Indices of heart rate variability in the supine position correlate with the length of high-intensity training sessions on the previous day.
HRV Analysis Daily, Time Domain
Author Iellamo et al. (2004)
Sport Elite Male Rowers (n=8)
Aim To test the hypothesis that training-induced variations in T-wave amplitude at higher training loads are paralleled by changes in HR spectral profile.
Main Findings From 50% to 100% of training load, there was a significant decrease in HRV and increase in sympathetic tone. As training reduced to 50% during the World Championships, HRV returned to base line and a return of autonomic indices to previous levels was seen. 
HRV Analysis Non-Daily – Frequency Domain

I’ll discuss my thoughts on the questions I listed above in my next post.

Please share any studies pertaining to HRV usage in a team setting that I may have missed in the comments below or e-mail me andrew_flatt@hotmail.com

I joined twitter recently too @andrew_flatt

References:

Cipryan, L. & Stejskal, P. (2010) Individual training in team sports based on ANS activity assessments. Medicina Sportiva, 14(2):  56-62 Free Full-Text

Cipryan, L., Stejskal, P., Bartakova, O., Botek, M., Cipryanova, H., Jakubec, A., Petr, M., & Řehova, I. (2007)  Autonomic nervous system observation through the use of spectral analysis of heart rate variability in ice hockey players.  Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 37(4): 17-21. Free Full-Text

Di Fronso, S. et al. (2012) Relationship between performance and heart rate variability in amateur basketball players during playoffs. Journal for Sports Sciences & Health, 8 (Suppl 1):S1–S70 45

Dranitsin, O. (2008) The effect on heart rate variability of acclimatization to a humid, hot environment after a transition across five time zones in elite junior rowers. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(5): 251-258 Abstract

Edmonds, RC., Sinclair, WH., and Leicht, AS. (2012) Theeffect of weekly training and a game on heart rate variability in elite youth Rugby League players. Proceedings of the 5th Exercise & Sports Science Australia Conference and 7th Sports Dietitians Australia Update. 5th Exercise & Sports Science Australia Conference and 7th Sports Dietitians Australia Update Research to Practice , 19-21 April 2012, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia , p. 183. Abstract

Hap, P., Stejskal, P. & Jakubec, A. (2010) Volleyball players training intensity monitoring through the use of spectral analysis of HRV during a training microcycle. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 41(3): 33-38 Free Full-Text

Iellamo, F., Pigozzi, F., Spataro, A., Lucini, D., & Pagani, M. (2004) T-wave and heart rate variability changes to assess training in world class athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(8): 1342-1346. Abstract

Ke-Tien, Y.(2012) Effects of Cardiovascular Endurance Training Periodization on Aerobic performance and Stress Modulation in Rugby Athletes. Life Science Journal, 9(2): 1218-25. Full-Text

Martin-Sanchez, F. (2011) Functional status and inflammation after preseason training program in professional and recreational soccer players: a proteomic approach. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 10: 45-51 Free Full-Text

Mazon, J. et al. (2011) Effects of training periodization on cardiac autonomic modulation and endogenous stress markers in volleyball players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01357.x Free Full-Text

Oliveira, RS. et al. (2012a) Seasonal changes in physical performance and HRV in high level futsal players. International Journal of Sports Medicine. DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1323720 Abstract

Oliveira, RS. et al. (2012b) The correlation between heart rate variability and improvement in soccer player’s physical performance. Brazilian Journal of Kinanthropometry, 14(6) Abstract

Parrado, E.  et al. (2010)Percieved tiredness and HRV in relation to overload during a field hockey world cup. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110(3): 699-713 Abstract

Rodas, G. et al. (2011) Changes in HRV in field hockey players during the 2006 World Cup. Apunts Medicina de l’Esport, (46): 117-123 Abstract

Vantinnen, T. et al. (2007) Practical experiences from measuring exercise intensity and recovery state with HR monitoring in team sport. Symposium Proceedings 6th IACSS Calgary, Alberta. Full-Text

 

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About hrvtraining

Researcher and Professor. Former coach.
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4 Responses to HRV Monitoring in a Team Setting: The Research

  1. Pingback: HRV Monitoring in a Team Setting: The Research | HRV or Heart Rate Variability has become a popular research topic, most likely due to the massive benefits from having athletes monitored in a way which allows them to be functioning optimally for performan

  2. Pingback: HRV Monitoring in a Team Setting: The Research | HRV or Heart Rate Variability has become a popular research topic, most likely due to the massive benefits from having athletes monitored in a way which allows them to be functioning optimally for performan

  3. Pingback: HRV Monitoring in a Team Setting: The Research | « rossyoungconditioning

  4. Pingback: HRV Monitoring in a Team Setting: The Research « rossyoungconditioning

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